erzsuche.com/components/cop/4472-iphone-8-orten.php Wolfram has extensive experience in the infrastructure and transport sectors, the IT industry, the health care sector and public private partnerships. Wolfram regularly advises and represents contracting entities and bidders in EU tender procedures and bid challenge proceedings in Germany and abroad.
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E-Business: Eine Übersicht für erfolgreiches B2B und B2C (German Edition) [ Christian Aichele, Marius Dieses Buch zeigt die Geschäftsmodelle des E- Business im B2B und B2C und erläutert Möglichkeiten und Gefahren. E- Procurement. Durch die Einführung des Electronic Business entstehen auffällige Die Autorin Kerstin Prechel gibt einen Überblick über den deutschen e-Business Markt. zeigt Marktentwicklungstendenzen auf und analysiert Shop-, e-Procurement- und .
Regional Capabilities:. Email Me Download vCard. More information Experience Recognition Insights Activities and Affiliations. Leading railway operator : Advising in a tender procedure and two bid challenge proceedings regarding a 15 year passenger rail service contract in Northern Germany.
Industry client : Advising in a widely observed case before the European Court of Justice regarding German regional minimum wage legislation for public contracts and its application to foreign subcontractors case no. Leading postal operator : Advising the client as bidder in a series of tender procedures and bid protests regarding postal services for German government agencies. From the comparison of the labels a total of sustainability characteristics were identified which were incorporated into a minimum of two of the labels under comparison and thereby reflect a certain level of societal consensus regarding the relevance of these characteristics.
These characteristics were allotted into the following categories:. The majority of the sustainability criteria identified were connected with the restriction or exclusion of undesired substances. There was a high level of consensus among the labels on the subject of the exclusion of forbidden substances, of substances of very high concern SVHC according to REACH, of category 1 and 2 CMR-substances and of toxic substances. On the other hand, restrictions for sensitizing agents, for environmentally harmful input materials and persistent substances PBT are less common but still widely specified.
A common factor is that in the majority of cases all of these substances must be declared by the manufacturer if they are used as input materials and not just present in the product as impurities.
The most effective method is to restrict VOC emissions by employing maximum threshold limits. Compliance with these limits is monitored by means of testing chamber examinations. Similar, but not quite as widely accepted, restrictions also apply to plasticisers SVOC. The restrictions range from bans on particularly undesirable plasticisers e.
These emissions tests are however less widely applied than those for VOCs. In addition, a large number of the assessed labels apply restrictions to the chemical formaldehyde. In this case they range from a restriction of the formaldehyde content level according to declarations or measurements , the exclusion of formaldehyde releasers as input substances, to a restriction of the formaldehyde emissions.
This final approach is particularly appropriate as formaldehyde is above all dangerous in its gaseous state. A general ban on biocides or at least the exclusion of especially dangerous biocides would be feasible in the majority of product groups but an exception must be made in some cases for pot-preservers.
In this case however, harmful halogenated preservatives, for instance, can be excluded. Further exclusions or threshold limits that are in wide use by European labels apply to problematic metals and metal compounds, to chromate chrome VI and to cobalt compounds which can be found in certain products. Less widely used are odour tests or radioactivity and radiation measurements. Alongside these are a large number of diverse individual substances, which — depending upon the particular product group — are less frequently the focus of criticism in terms of the criteria of the labels assessed.
In comparison to the preceding categories the number of sustainability criteria in the area of resource and climate protection is relatively limited: The primary criterion is a minimum percentage of renewable raw materials as well as the use of secondary raw materials e.
In particular, the origin of timber as a renewable raw material is the subject of heavy focus. The minimum requirement is therefore: no exploitative felling in timber harvesting supplemented by the use of regional timber resources and culminating in the promotion of sustainable forestry practises, of which there is already a tradition in central Europe. Another widely addressed issue is the avoidance of waste. Requirements on the nature of packaging reusable packaging, resealable packaging, halogen-free packaging are particularly well established in Germany. Requirements for unproblematic disposal and the avoidance of dangerous waste materials are focussed on a general recycling of the products but, based on the response from the labels, it hardly seems a feasible goal at this time.
A ban on PVC as an input material is however another story as this is already applied by some labels. Requirements for the usage efficiency suitability for purpose and, above all, durability are applied occasionally. They can however be counterproductive if the higher usage efficiency is linked to an increased environmental burden.
The social criteria that are currently present in the labels are very limited. They restrict themselves in general terms to compliance with the core working standards of the International Labour Organisation ILO , in particular to the issue of child labour, and to references to essential protective measures protection against dust, fumes etc.